In the previous paper (Strangeways, 1980) it was shown that the systematic error in the azimuthal bearing due to multipath propagation and incident wave polarisation (when this also constitutes an error) was given by only three different forms for all VLF direction-finders currently used to investigate the position of whistler ducts. In this paper the magnitude of this error is investigated for different ionospheric and ground parameters for these three different systematic error types. By incorporating an ionosphere for which the refractive index is given by the full Appleton-Hartree formula, the variation of the systematic error with ionospheric electron density and latitude and direction of propagation is investigated in addition to the variation with wave frequency, ground conductivity and dielectric constant and distance of propagation. The systematic bearing error is also investigated for the three methods when the azimuthal bearing is averaged over a 2 kHz bandwidth. This is found to lead to a significantly smaller bearing error which, for the crossed-loops goniometer, approximates the bearing error calculated when phase-dependent terms in the receiver response are ignored.
The sexual assault trial of Charles “Chuck” Cusack has been postponed. Cusack was head of beach-tag operations in Ocean City, NJ, at the time of his arrest.By Tim Zatzariny Jr.For OCNJ DailyA hearing at which a new trial date was to be set for a former Ocean City beach tag supervisor accused of having a sexual relationship with an underage female beach-fee collector has been postponed.Charles E. Cusack, 51, was scheduled to appear in state Superior Court in Cape May Court House on Tuesday (March 3) for a status conference. But the hearing is being delayed because Cusack’s attorney, Louis M. Barbone of Atlantic City, is awaiting a verdict in unrelated criminal trial involving a police officer he represents in Gloucester County.Cusack’s hearing has been rescheduled for Friday, March 13. Jury selection in his trial was previously set to begin Feb. 23, but was delayed because Barbone was involved in the other trial.Cusack, a retired Ocean City police officer, was charged in August 2012 with one second-degree count of sexual assault and one second-degree count of endangering the welfare of a child. A superseding indictment handed up by a Cape May County grand jury in February 2015 added a second-degree charge of official misconduct against Cusack. If convicted, he faces five to 10 years in state prison on each of the charges, including a mandatory minimum of five years in prison for official misconduct.And, if he were to be convicted on the sex assault charge, Cusack would have to register as a sex offender for life under Megan’s Law.Cusack was arrested in August 2012 after he allegedly had a two-month sexual relationship with the girl, who was 17 at the time, authorities said. He has been free since posting $150,000 bond shortly after his arrest. Authorities have released no additional details about the victim, or about Cusack’s alleged sexual relationship with her.In New Jersey, the age of consent is 16. But Cusack was charged under a provision in state statute that makes it illegal for a person to have sex with someone over whom he or she has supervisory authority when an alleged victim is 16 or 17 years old.Cusack served 25 years in the Ocean City Police Department before retiring in May 2011.He was in his second season as director of the city’s beach-tag program when he was arrested.
The Flanders Hotel Gingerbread ContestEach year the Flanders Hotel displays its elegant holiday decorations as well as the gingerbread houses submitted to win the grand prizes… There is a featured gingerbread house from Blue Dolfin Sweets, located in Marmora. There are two categories in which you can enter; children (ages 4 – 12) and adults.Each child that enters will receive a small prize.1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th place in the children’s diversion, will win a mini bucket of toys and Playland’s Castaway Cove Tickets.Adult prizes include;1st Place: 2-night stay in a luxurious penthouse*2nd Place: 2-night stay in a deluxe 1 bedroom suite*3rd Place: High Tea for 2*All gingerbread houses must be handmade, no electrical or moving parts, houses must be dropped off between December 1st and December 31st, judging takes place New Year’s Day at 11 am, *prizes for the hotel stays will be based on Availablity during off-season dates only, * high tea winners will be based on availability of the tea (does not include holiday or speciality teas), participants do not need to be present to winGOOD LUCK!
Even though the cost of key raw materials, including flour, dairy and vegetable oil products, is rising at phenomenal rates, several of the supermarkets are in the midst of a price war.Last month, Tesco launched a £4 million advertising campaign, boasting about its low prices and Asda announced £250m of price cuts, including Warburtons’ Sliced Rolls 12-pack, which went from £1.25 to £1.Asda’s economists compared the price of 26 everyday groceries. In 1997, these cost £29.39, dropping to £29.10 in 2007, it said. Meanwhile, one supplier to the major retailers has reported that a pack of its doughnuts was selling at 75p in the 1980s, but today, the same products sell at 65p.This may be good news for the customer, but suppliers say they are under mounting pressure as the costs of raw materials rise at alarming rates, and they are calling on the multiples to agree to price rises.The price picture is grim. Many suppliers report that ingredients costs have shot up – with, for example, soft fruit prices up 150% year-on-year and cream prices up 30%.Gluten and yeast prices have also seen double-digit percentage growth. Pea and potato harvests were down this year due to the wet weather in July. And according to the National Association of British and Irish Millers (nabim) figures, the price of breadmaking wheat has almost doubled over the last 12 months, reaching record levels. On top of that, the UK harvest is about 10% smaller than anticipated, said Alex Waugh, director-general.Animal feed has also seen almost a 100% rise over the past few months, so bakers who use meat in products, such as pig meat, are facing additional increases. Stewart Houston of the British Pig Executive (BPEX) has estimated that farmers are losing £22 a pig due to price hikes in animal feed.He said: “I have already spoken to senior executives from the major retailers and I will visit them to make sure they have a full understanding of just? how serious this situation is and str?e?ss the need for immediate action. Something needs to be done in days, not weeks.”Ron Middleton, sales director of Meadow Foods, which supplies products such as butter, cream and milk powders, said the unprecedented dairy prices had “taken everyone by surprise”, particularly the pace and extent at which they had shot up. Milk had already gone up from 18p to 25p a litre over the past few months, he said, adding, “Who knows how much higher this will go? Some suppliers have hit a brick wall when it comes to asking retailers to increase their prices. The retailers are going to have to take their heads out of the sand.”Over the second half of 2006, butter prices rose to £1,800 a tonne and they currently stand at record levels – £3,500 a tonne.Feed accounts for over 50% of the cost of raising a hen, so soaring wheat prices have seen egg prices balloon. “The price of feed is driving huge, huge problems for us,” said Clive Frampton, chairman of the British Egg Products Association. “There is an awful lot of work going on to tell customers that prices are rising; bakers are pressurised by retailers so they’re not keen to take price increases. But I think they understand they have to – British farmers won’t continue to produce eggs at a loss.”Even worse, many suppliers predict that the crisis has yet to peak and, in the run-up to the crucial Christmas period, Frampton says: “Prices are moving quite quickly at the moment. Every indication is that feed prices are going to remain firm and probably increase.”Gary Norcott, commercial director of Staple Dairy Products, said: “We are more worried about the availability of butter rather than its cost. As we progress further into the trough of production, processors are reluctant to offer forward prices past one month, for fear of not having the milk available.”Adding to the problem are issues such as growing demand in China and India for dairy products and drought in Australia, as well as higher demand for cheese and small milk production in the EU.Said nabim’s Waugh: “At the moment, apart from price, the main problem faced by the milling sector is availability.” He added: “If businesses do not put up their prices and soon, I will not be surprised if there are casualties.”The Greencore Group, which supplies products, including cakes and sandwiches, to major retailers, also called for price increases. Jonathan Grant-Nicholas, group communications director, said it was dealing with the price increases by maximising efficiency and had recently appointed a group purchasing and supply chain director. He said: “It is only natural that the supermarkets would want to keep their prices down as much as possible. But there is no doubt that these unprecedented commodity increases should be fed through to the consumer.””There is a commodities crisis upon us and there aren’t any hiding places,” said Guy Hall, strategy and marketing director of bakery firm Maple Leaf UK.So with all these pressures on suppliers, are the major supermarkets showing any signs of pity by easing up their prices? Many of the multiples and major retailers say they are willing to accept that inevitable price increases are on the horizon. “As with any product, if the cost of bakery goods goes up, then retail prices will reflect this,” said a spokesperson for Tesco. “That said, we will always work hard to ensure prices are kept as low as possible for the consumer.”Michael Hanley, bakery buyer for Asda, commented: “As far as Asda is concerned, we have an excellent working relationship with our suppliers and, as with any raw material price increases, we will work with them to minimise the impact on product cost and retail price.”Now that the national press has picked up on the rising commodity prices, highlighting the problem in the public domain, “the consumer is aware and thus can apply logic to purchasing decisions at the point of sale”, added Hanley.Shaun Walsh, category trading manager for bakery at The Co-operative Group said the retailer was working closely with its key bakery partners to “ensure that we accommodate these issues in such a way that we minimise any impact for all the stakeholders involved”. He added: “We recognise that there are unprecedented levels of cost pressures within the bread market.”But with one industry source estimating that 14p needs to be added to a loaf of bread, just to cover raw material costs, the supermarkets will need to take a really deep breath. —-=== COMMODITIES ===Prices for breadmaking wheat have almost doubled over the last 12 months, to £200 per tonneRecent milk auctions in Northern Ireland were (average prices/litre) 26p in June, 30p in July and 34p in August, a trend which GB farmers are trying to replicateMilk powder in 2006 was £1,500. Now it is £2,700-£2,800 per tonneOver the second half of 2006, butter prices rose to £1,800 a tonne; they currently stand at record levels – £3,500 a tonne.Cream generally keeps track with the butter prices, although lags behind, or in front, from time to time. Current bulk prices are over £1.50/kgAccording to the Association of Bakery Ingredients Manufacturers, over the last six to 12 months: starches are up 30%; wheat starch is up 45%; dextrose is up 30%; lactose is up 100%; whey is up 100%; and rape seed oil, palm oil and sunflower oil are up 30%
WhatsApp Google+ Residents displaced after fire at Beacon Heights Apartments Facebook (Jon Zimney/95.3 MNC) Some residents of Beacon Heights Apartments in South Bend have been displaced due to a morning fire. The call came in around 5:40 a.m. on Saturday, Sep. 12.Fire crews say there were at least four people trapped inside, but when they arrived, they didn’t find anyone trapped.Five apartments were hit by the blaze.There was no report of any injuries. There was no immediate word about the cause of the fire.The America Red Cross is helping the displaced residents find new homes. WhatsApp Twitter IndianaLocalNews Google+ Pinterest Pinterest Facebook Previous articleThree Benton Harbor residents arrested on drugs, weapons chargesNext articleVictim shot, killed at University Park Mall identified Jon ZimneyJon Zimney is the News and Programming Director for News/Talk 95.3 Michiana’s News Channel and host of the Fries With That podcast. Follow him on Twitter @jzimney. By Jon Zimney – September 13, 2020 0 298 Twitter
“Seether” (Veruca Salt)“What’s Up?” (4 Non Blondes)“I’m The Only One” (Melissa Etheridge)“You Gotta Be” (Des’ree)“Zombie” (The Cranberries)“Only Happy When It Rains” (Garbage)“Right Through You” (Alanis Morissette)“Just A Girl” (No Doubt)“Don’t Go Chasing Waterfalls” (TLC)[Photo: Patrick Hughes] Back in September, Brooklyn Comes Alive took over three venues in Williamsburg, New York City, offering up the characteristic tributes, supergroups, and all-around musical madness the event has become known for. One of our favorite sets from the weekend was led by the charismatic songstress Hayley Jane of Hayley Jane & The Primates, who took on the persona of various high-profile female rockers during her Bitch! Women of the 90’s tribute set.Hayley Jane And The Primates To Perform 90’s Themed Phish Pre-PartyFor this captivating throwback set, Hayley Jane teamed with Kung Fu’s guitarist Tim Palmieri, bassist Chris DeAngelis, and drummer Adrian Tramontano, as well as Pink Talking Fish keyboardist Richard James for a nostalgic and impassioned walk down memory lane, revisiting the 90’s in all its grungy glory. Hayley Jane showed off her immense vocal talents, masterfully taking on the vocal duties for a number of hits from the era by powerhouse female artists ranging from TLC to Alanis Morissette to No Doubt’s Gwen Stefani. You can check out full video from Hayley Jane’s Bitch! Women of the 90’s tribute set below, which was captured by Live For Live Music’s own Rex Thomson. Enjoy!Members Of The Motet, TAB, & More Honor Jamiroquai At Brooklyn Comes Alive [Audio/Videos]If you want to catch Hayley Jane live and rockin’ out 90’s-style, make sure to catch her on Friday, December 29th, when she descends on New York City with The Primates for a pre-Phish performance at The Cutting Room titled “Party Of Five – Tribute To The 90’s.” The fiery vocalist and her merry band of Primates will pay homage to some of their favorite artists from the era while mixing in some of their original material, and it’ll all go down just a few short blocks from Phish‘s show that evening at Madison Square Garden. Tickets for Hayley Jane And The Primates’ “Party Of Five – Tribute To The 90’s,” are on sale now, and can be purchased at this link.“I’m A Bitch!” (Meredith Brooks)
Brian Hartnett, Isaac Lorton, Kevin Song and Samantha Zuba have been hired to help oversee The Observer’s editorial operations in 2014-15, incoming Editor-in-Chief Ann Marie Jakubowski announced Wednesday.Hartnett will serve as Managing Editor, the no. 2 spot at the paper, while Lorton, Song and Zuba will serve as Assistant Managing Editors. They begin their new roles March 17.As Managing Editor, Hartnett will be responsible for assisting Jakubowski in supervising The Observer’s editorial departments. A junior majoring in marketing with a minor in Journalism, Ethics and Democracy, Hartnett is a resident of Carroll Hall currently studying abroad in London.The Clark, N.J., native served as The Observer’s interhall editor in Fall 2012 and covered Notre Dame women’s basketball on its run to the Final Four in 2013. He also served as a beat writer for Notre Dame women’s soccer and women’s lacrosse, among other sports.“The Observer has been a major part of my Notre Dame experience, and I want to give back to all those who help make the paper a daily reality by helping to steer it to an even more promising future,” Hartnett said.Lorton is a junior majoring in the Program of Liberal Studies with a minor in Journalism, Ethics and Democracy. Lorton is a Keenan Hall resident currently studying abroad in London. A native of Prescott Valley, Ariz., he serves as an assistant sports editor and covered men’s soccer’s road to winning the national championship, as well as hockey and baseball.“I am extremely excited to help The Observer in any way I can with passion and dedication,” Lorton said.Song is a junior majoring in finance and computer applications and living off campus. Hailing from Green Brook, N.J., he currently serves as the Online Editor and Associate Photo Editor and led the project to launch the new website for The Observer.“There’s been a lot of push to improving the online presence for newspapers worldwide, and I’m excited to be able to help The Observer enhance the web experience,” Song said.Zuba is a junior majoring in English with minors in German and Journalism, Ethics and Democracy. The Wheeling, Ill., native lives in Breen-Phillips Hall and sings in Notre Dame’s Women’s Liturgical Choir. Zuba has covered women’s basketball, men’s soccer and women’s tennis beats while also serving as Baraka Bouts editor this fall. This summer, she will intern with the L.A. Times sports department.“I am really looking forward to working closely with our individual staff members to create the best possible product for our readers,” Zuba said.
France boosts renewable energy spending to a record €6 billion in 2021 budget FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享S&P Global Market Intelligence ($):In France, government support for renewable energies will rise by 25% in the upcoming 2021 budget to exceed a record €6 billion, the country’s ministry for ecological transition announced on Sep. 17.The financial injection will be aligned with the government’s longer-term energy roadmap, released in April of this year, which is targeting the diversification of the country’s energy mix, the decarbonizing of heating and transport systems and energy efficiency measures.By 2028, the European Union’s second-largest economy wants to double installed renewable electricity capacity to up to 113 GW, compared to 2017. Onshore wind will generate up to 34.7 GW, offshore wind 6.2 GW, solar 44 GW and hydropower 26.7 GW, the government laid out in its roadmap. Meanwhile, 14 nuclear reactors in the country will be closed by 2035, two of which have already been shuttered at Electricité de France SA’s Fessenheim plant in eastern France this year.France’s power system is dominated by stable nuclear generation, but the country’s grid got an early glimpse of a more diversified power mix during the demand slump caused by coronavirus-related shutdowns. “The health crisis has demonstrated the ability of renewable energies to contribute to our security of electricity supply and their resilience. On some days in spring they provided more than 35% of the total electricity production, without noticeable difficulty on the stability of the electricity system as a whole,” the government said.EDF is still in the process of building a new nuclear power plant in Flamanville, northern France, but the construction has been delayed and costs have ballooned beyond the initial budget. A decision over new nuclear capacity and the future of nuclear in France’s power landscape is meanwhile being delayed until after the completion of the Flamanville plant.Simultaneously, adding new green power has become cheaper. “Thanks to the support provided to them and their rapid development, renewables are becoming more and more competitive: support prices for solar photovoltaic energy have fallen by 40% over the past five years, those for onshore wind power have seen a decline of 20% over the past three years,” the ministry for ecological transition said.[Camilla Naschert]More ($): France to increase renewables spending to €6B in 2021 budget
Once it starts warming up, the crew goes into more of a reactionary mode dealing with an increase in visitation and vegetation. Because most of the trails are multi-use, the crew spends a lot of time thinking about how to make the trails more accessible for runners, bikers, and dog walkers alike. “These are the folks that do the heavy lifting, the day to day stuff,” he said. “They clear the nasty blow downs after ice storms. They make sure there’s no muddy spots on the A.T., that the shelters are picked up from litter, and replace signs that are worn and rotten. They do pretty much 99 percent of the work.” “We’re seeing more diversity, all ages, all walks of life, all colors,” he said. “I call it the glue of the city.” Young adults, ages 18 to 25, have the opportunity to work on the Palmetto Trail and other greenways in South Carolina while preparing for a career in land management or other fields of study. “Sometimes, being outside scares people. If I can make that experience easier for them because the trail is better, then that inspires me to keep doing it.” — Rich Bowerman, Konnarock volunteer Conservation Legacy is encouraging the next generation of trail maintainers and conservationists to get outside and get their boots dirty. Alex Dunn, one of the newest additions, has done trail work across the country. After doing a stint in AmeriCorps, she joined the National Park Service and worked on trail crews for Acadia, Yosemite, and Saguaro National Park. Today, there are six crews that vary in difficulty. Mid-Atlantic Trail Crew Paul Curtin, who oversees the section maintainers and an overnight crew for the Carolina Mountain Club, said trail maintenance provides a way to make an instant impact. SAWS offers stewardship opportunities in Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, West Virginia, and Virginia throughout the year. Look out for seasonal job opportunities on the trail as well. “That’s just the way it is,” Curtin said. “We’d love for that to change. But the reality is working people are busy. When I was working, I wasn’t working on the trails either. When you have a retired workforce, those people are going to succumb to injuries and, at a certain point, just can’t do it anymore. We’ve got people in their 80s going out there and working on the trail. That’s great if you can do that, but a lot of people can’t. So that means we need to replenish our ranks.” With so many visitors, a lot of time is spent addressing social trails. When users take the most direct route from point to point—rather than the most sustainable route—informal trails are created that are susceptible to erosion. Within the local clubs, section maintainers and trail crews handle things like trimming branches and clearing water bars to make sure the trail stays open. They are the eyes and ears of the trail, responding to incidents as they happen. After years spent hiking and enjoying the trails, the Koskovichs now find themselves spending more time on maintaining the trails. Konnarock Crew was founded in 1982 as more public land became available and the ATC had the ability to move the trail route. Mountain Club of Maryland “It was something I wanted to share with her because I just loved it so much,” she said. “The trail has kind of been our thing. It’s been our time together, it clears our head, and we have wonderful adventures.” Work on a section of the A.T. for a week or two with another beginner crew from the ATC. The ATC also partners with 31 local maintaining clubs that each take care of a section. Some of the clubs are larger and have paid staff, others rely solely on volunteers. Many of these clubs also help maintain other trails in their area beyond the A.T. Meeting the City’s Needs 2019 has been a transition year for the trail crew. Whereas trail operations used to fall under the James River Park System, the city of Richmond decided to restructure and make Trails and Greenways its own division under Parks and Recreation. Burton said the change was made so the department could direct more effort into other parks in the area beyond the James River. Andrew Alli adjusts the rock path to improve a river crossing in Forest Hill Park. / Photo by Ellen Kanzinger Southeast Conservation Corps “We’re expanding our reach,” he said. “We’re doing some maintenance and improvements to some trails that, in the past, have gotten a little less attention. James River Park gets the majority of the volume, usage, and it’s the trails that Richmond is known for. But there are a lot of other parks, like Pine Camp, Brian Park, Powhite Park, that we’re able to make improvements to trail systems.” The crew is responsible for 50 miles of trails and greenways in the city, 21 of which are in the James River Park. Like Alli, Dunn was excited to return to her hometown while doing the work she loved. “It’s coming out and volunteering with a complete stranger that has a different trajectory and life experience than you had,” Kloehn said. “And it all really doesn’t matter. You’re all crapping in the woods. You’re all eating the same beans and rice or Mediterranean pasta dish for dinner. You’re all huddled under the same rain tarp when it’s thundering and lightning and has been pouring for hours. You’re all sweating. You’re all cursing the heat and humidity. But you’re all there for the same goal. So, there is a real natural bond that forms just because, for whatever reason, you wanted to come out here.” Maintenance of this 2,192-mile trail requires coordination between dozens of agencies and organizations as the trail crosses state and county lines. The ATC works with the land management agencies, like state parks and the Forest Service, that oversee the public land the trail runs across to ensure everything is managed properly and everyone has the support they need. “This is a line of work where you learn something new every day, which is exciting,” Dunn said. “Variety is the spice of life.” While Richmond now has a paid trail crew of four full-time employees and 2 seasonal employees, the department still relies on volunteers to help keep the trails open. Kitt West, who started out as a volunteer before he was hired as a full-time technician, said the support from the community is key. “We have all the normal issues that people tend to have on trails, everything is just condensed and amplified here,” he said. “Even if it’s a small percentage of people that don’t realize it’s an issue or choose to use trails when they really shouldn’t, it’s a small percentage of a big group of people. Some common sense and courtesy goes a long way on the trails.” The Smokies Wilderness Elite A.T. Crew (SWEAT), which handles issues in the remote backcountry of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, is considered the most challenging crew. They backpack in everything they will need for the week, including food, tools, and shelter, anywhere from six to 11 miles over rough terrain. On the other side, Konnarock is more of a car camping experience. Alli got his start working on trails at Powhatan State Park. There, he was able to get into the intricacies and science behind designing and maintaining trails. When a position opened up at James River Park, he was ready to bring what he learned back home. As a city trail crew, most of the job sites are easily accessible by a truck loaded up with tools for any number of duties, including stonework, carpentry, putting up new signs, and taking out downed trees. Check out one of the monthly work outings in Kentucky. “Once they reach a certain amount of usage, mountain bikers wind up getting runoff from the trails because there’s too much potential for conflict,” Burton said. “A big part of what I view my job as is protecting mountain bikers’ access to these trails. The mountain biking community has been the driving force in Richmond for the construction of these trails. So, they’ve earned the right to use these trails.” Konnarock Trail Crew Whether a trail is one mile or 1,000 miles, in a city or in the middle of a forest, someone has to take care of it. Someone has to clear the fallen trees after a storm or put in a water bar to mitigate erosion so you and I can get outside. “She would always come back just ranting and raving about it,” Ronnie said. “For the last two years now, I told her that I would find a way to get out here and I wasn’t able to. So, this year we decided we were just going to make it work one way or another. Having a group of really strong women around me who taught me how to build and maintain trails in Missouri really inspired me to keep learning and see what else there was out there to do.” “Konnarock, which is sort of one of the beginner trail crews that ATC operates, is a bit more cushy,” Kloehn said. “We have camping chairs, so we don’t have to sit on the ground. We have a big cold cooler where we have gallons of cold milk for cereal, fresh fruits and veggies, and cold cuts. It is not a rough experience outside of the workday.” Red River Gorge Trail Crew Behind the park, which sees more than two million visitors a year, a dedicated staff of trails technicians are making sure visitors can continue to enjoy the space. Michael Burton, the city’s Trails and Greenways Superintendent, said they deal with any number of other problems, including storm water runoff due to all of the concrete surrounding the park, people using wet trails, off-leash dogs, and cyclists not yielding the right of way. “We have a hard time getting people to come out the first time,” Curtin said. “We have all sorts of people that express interest but then they never get in their car and drive to the trailhead. Once they do that, they almost always have a good time. You learn some new skills. You get to do some stuff that you don’t normally get to do, like smash up rocks with sledgehammers or split with an ax.” Those that do make it out tend to be retirees who have the time to give. At the end of the week together, mother and daughter returned to Missouri knowing they had put in the work. As with any organization that relies on volunteers to run the programming, many trail clubs are spread thin across many different roles. West Virginia Scenic Trails Association “There’s a lot more that goes on in trail maintenance than people think,” Alli said. “We have to take in the local hydrology, the users, the local habitat. It really requires knowledge in a lot of different fields.” “That’s been on the wish list for a long, long time,” Burton said. “People love new trail. That project, a lot of people got really excited about because that was the last piece of the downtown loop that wasn’t singletrack. It really makes for a better overall trail experience. And it increases the safety. Now the trail’s not up in the neighborhoods and there’s not car traffic to contend with.” “In the old days, we just wanted to put the trail on the land and get a connection from Georgia to Maine,” Kloehn said. “That usually meant the ridgelines and the land that the farmers didn’t want. The trail was steep, not necessarily the most aesthetically pleasing, the most recreationally pleasing. Sometimes the footpath was just a way to get through 20 miles. It didn’t really take into account the experience.” “A lot of the work is very similar,” she said “It is keeping trails safe for users and mitigating erosion. Regionally, there are different climates and different terrains, but I would say the work is pretty similar. When I was in Arizona, I was actually mule-packing. We don’t do that here.” “I feel like everyone thinks the city has all this money and they’ll take care of that,” he said. “It really is the volunteers that do it. That was one thing with North Bank, there was little old ladies and kids out there digging trail, and it was humbling to see that. It wouldn’t have happened without them. Everyone’s perception that we have all this money and we can go out and fix things is just not the case. We’re on a razor-thin budget, and it wouldn’t happen without volunteers that care about the park.” Born and raised in Richmond, Virginia, Andrew Alli has seen the exponential growth of the James River Park System firsthand as a trail user, environmental science student at VCU, and now as a trails technician. Palmetto Conservation Corp This summer, the mother and daughter were finally able to make it out to the trail together. The Appalachian Trail Josh Kloehn, a resource manager out of the ATC’s Roanoke office, said many of these maintaining clubs have been around since the early days of the trail. Rosie Koskovich got her start doing trail maintenance with the Ozark Trail Association in Missouri. In 2013, she and a group of OTA members volunteered with the Konnarock Crew for a week. After that experience, Koskovich knew it was something she wanted to do with her daughter, Ronnie. Southern Appalachian Wilderness Stewards The organization promotes existing trails, including the Allegheny and Mary Ingles Trail, in addition to the construction of new ones. BRO hit the road with two maintenance crews to get a feel for all the work that goes into keeping trails open to the public. The fact that mountain bikers are still allowed on the trails is unique to the Richmond trails in comparison to other urban trail systems. James River Park System (Richmond, Va.) “The A.T. is really like a highway,” Rosie said. “It is so well-loved and used. That’s why it is necessary to come in and do these rehab projects so it’s still there for the next generation to know and love.” The ATC also sponsors six volunteer trail crews to handle larger projects. These crews spend a week rehabbing or relocating sections of trail that require more specialized work and tools. “I remember walking away from it, and I kept turning around to look at it,” Ronnie said. “I didn’t want to forget what we had done. I snapped a couple of pictures, but they don’t even do it justice. I think that my memory of actually being out there on the trail, that one on one time with Mom in particular, that’s not something I can get anywhere else.” The process to getting one of the trail crews out to a site starts as a proposal from one of the local clubs or land managing agencies. From there, it typically takes about five years for the project to go through an environmental impact study and be reviewed by various different agencies. The ATC welcomes volunteers of all abilities, no matter your camping, backpacking, or trail maintaining experience. The program provides all of the food, equipment, instruction, and transportation from the basecamp. All volunteers have to do is show up ready to put in work. “Be prepared to be dirty. Be prepared to have a lot of fun and meet great people.” — Patty Pender, Konnarock volunteer Photo by Ellen Kanzinger “We’re in the middle of Richmond, but you can go into the middle of the park, not see anything man-made, and really feel like you’re immersed in wilderness,” Alli said. “Anything from boating, to trail using, sightseeing, to hanging out on the river. We really have it all. Class 4 and 5 rapids, really technical singletrack mountain biking. Whatever you’re looking for, you can probably find it in the park. I’m still finding parts in the park that I never knew existed.” “Trails don’t maintain themselves,” said Josh Reynolds, a crew leader for the Appalachian Trail Conservancy’s Konnarock Trail Crew. “It’s fun, but it’s also important work. For anyone who enjoys hiking on trails, it’s something to keep in the back of your mind that this trail didn’t magically appear here. These steps weren’t just deposited by the glaciers. People worked on this, and you can do it too. It’s work that lasts for years. And I think it really deepens my appreciation for trails when I go hiking on my own. I’m thinking about how this was built, all the work that went into that, and how could it maybe be improved. I think it’s good to remember that.” “Here’s 100 yards of trail that we’ve improved, and we did it all today,” he said. “You don’t have to wait a week or month to see what’s going to happen down the road.” They are volunteers like Rosie and Ronnie Koskovich who traveled from Missouri to do work on the trail. Paul Curtin was inspired by his thru hike to maintain a section of the trail, and the hundreds of other volunteers have been moved to give back to this storied trail in some way. “Instead of just cutting the branches that are growing into the trail that would hit you in the face, there’s a lot of places where we can prune longer distance sightlines,” Burton said. “We’re always looking at places where we can prune both sides of the tree that’ll allow you to see around the corner better. We’re always looking for areas we can put in passing spots, places where we can create additional room in the trail tread to where people can get past each other easier.” From Georgia to Maine, hundreds of volunteers help keep the Appalachian Trail open and accessible to hikers year-round. Looking to get out on the trail and do some work yourself? Check out these other Trail Maintaining Organizations or look for one near you. Josh Reynolds measures the space where a new step will be placed on the A.T. near Sam’s Gap. / Photo by Ellen Kanzinger As with any trail crew, the work tends to vary depending on the season. In the cooler months when less people are on the trail, they focus on bigger projects. This past April, the crew dug new trail to finish connecting the North Bank Trail. Help maintain trails from the A.T. to Patapsco Valley State Park.
This would rank the general pension fund as the third biggest in the Netherlands, after Aegon’s APF Stap (€5.8bn) and Het Nederlandse Pensioenfonds, owned by insurer ASR (€3.5bn).The Sligro scheme is transfer to a separate section of Centraal Beheer, the third scheme to do so after the Dutch pension funds of Royal Bank of Scotland and brewer Bavaria.Centraal Beheer APF also operates four different defined benefit sections as well as a defined contribution compartment.In 2016, the Sligro Pensioenfonds said it would remain independent. However, its annual report for 2018 indicated that it had changed its mind after its administration costs rose from €197 to €217 per member, as a consequence of higher costs for board support and increasing regulatory pressures.The scheme also cited the limited availability of new trustees and expiring contracts with the scheme’s asset manager BMO and its administrator AZL.The annual report also revealed that the Sligro scheme had decided against joining the €1.3bn sector scheme for the wholesale food sector (Bpf Foodservice), citing “pension-technical and organisational reasons”. Sligro and its pension fund declined to provide further details.Earlier this year, Centraal Beheer APF attracted the €60m company scheme Scildon as well as the employers Yarden and Afval Terminal Moerdijk (ATM). Yarden and ATM were clients of the Delta Lloyd APF, which was liquidated following the takeover of its parent company by NN Group.Other Dutch pension funds planning to join an APF – a consolidation model rapidly gaining traction in the Netherlands – include automotive organisation ANWB and synthetics firm Invista Netherlands, as well as Ortec and former pension fund Jan Huysman Wz. The latter two are clients of Volo, run by PGGM. The pensions provider plans to shut down its APF. The €370m pension fund of Dutch food wholesaler Sligro is to join the general pension fund (APF) Centraal Beheer.Centraal Beheer, a subsidiary of Achmea, said that accrued pension rights and future accrual would be transferred to the consolidation vehicle as of 1 October.Pensioenfonds Sligro has almost 11,000 participants in total, 4,600 of whom are active members and 800 of whom are pensioners.With the addition of the Sligro scheme, Centraal Beheer’s APF will grow to €1.9bn of assets under management and 45,000 participants, according to a spokesman for Achmea.